Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), closely related to the sociology of science, considers social influences on science. Practitioners include Barry Barnes, David Bloor, Gaston Bachelard, Paul Feyerabend, Elihu M. Gerson, Thomas Kuhn, Martin Kusch, Bruno Latour, Susan Leigh Star, Anselm Strauss, Lucy Suchman, Harry Collins, and others.
These thinkers (sociologists, philosophers of science, historians of science, anthropologists and computer scientists) have engaged in controversy concerning the role that social factors play in scientific development relative to rational, empirical, and other factors.
SSK basically exploits the history and sociology of science, it consists of studying the development of a scientific field, and identfying points of contingency or interpretative flexibility, where at time, ambiguities are present. Having identified such branch points, the researcher then seeks to explain why one interpretation rather than another succeeded.
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[And, in this sense, read the following story:]

Remote Viewing Vs Its Skeptics
·The Larger Picture of Remote Viewing Vs. The Larger Picture of Skeptics and Debunkers
by Ingo Swann (20 Jan 96)
During the mid-1970s, one of the agencies of the intelligence community requested a lengthy examination. I[Ingo Swann] was involved with a number of professional consultants in its preparation and the report was duly produced under the working title "Social Resistance to Psi."
Three of the major observations of the report established the following:
(1) Since doubt is considered a legitimate function within intellectual processes, the role of those who doubt is given more legitimacy than those who do not doubt. Were this not so then the meaning of doubt would become vague.
(2) When doubt is superimposed on direct human experiencing, then the doubt assumes a priority because of its perceived legitimacy. The superimposition then results in a subtle shift of focus away from examining the direct human experiencing and reinstalls the focus within the contexts of the various intellectualisms that have become involved.
(3) The history of intellectualisms demonstrates (a) that they have relatively short terms of social fashionability, and (b) that they tend to be elitist in nature because the larger populations either do not, or cannot, share in them.
Combining these three observations results in a fourth: that doubt is relative to social enclaves and is thus only transitory against larger issues that remain permanent within the direct experiential thresholds of our species.
Reducing these four observations to a possibly crude level, skeptics and debunkers come and go --- but the experiencing thresholds of the species remain the same. The experiencing thresholds are therefore perpetual. Skepticism that advocates doubt regarding something perpetual is relevant only to the transitory intellectual boundaries within which it has arisen.
As an apt illustration of the above, Albert Einstein introduced his special theory of relativity in 1905 while he was still a student and working in the patent office in Switzerland. The skeptical responses regarding the theory, and him as a scientist and man, were not only noisy but exceedingly voluminous.
By 1925, historians appraised that the Einstein "debate" had accumulated the largest printed paper volume ever.
When the special theory was proven correct between 1927 and 1929, it was shown that relativity was perpetual --- naturally existing and true. The skeptical and debunking responses were shown as transitory, however ardent and voluminous they had been. None of the names of Einstein's skeptics are remembered. And this is the ignominious fate of most skeptics --- because the times and tides of discovery march on and forget they existed.
Please,


http://rabbit-hole-journey.blogspot.com/2007/10/media-moguls-bankers-and-cfr.html [...after clicking on the link, scroll down to the second 'comment' by John Wallace]
A “front group” can be any entity that is set up to appear to be a legitimate independent organization, when it is actually controlled from behind the scenes by another organization or group of individuals. These front groups are often legitimate businesses, social or political organizations, professional groups, advocacy groups, research organizations, etc. Organized crime has used legitimate front organizations for many decades to launder their income from various illegal activities. Pharmaceutical companies have used front organizations to advocate for the drugs they manufacture. International terrorist organizations have their front groups here in the United States and as the evidence clearly shows, so do the international bankers.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) was founded in 1921 by a very select group of international bankers, Wall Street lawyers and wealthy “old money” families sometimes called the Establishment or the Elites. Among the CFR’s founders were JP Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, “Colonel” Edward House (Marxist. globalist and close advisor to President Wilson), Paul Warburg (international banker), Otto Kahn and Jacob Schiff (both international investment bankers). The CFR’s stated purpose at that time was to improve the understanding of US foreign policy and international affairs through the exchange of ideas. The select membership has been gradually expanded over the years, now totaling around 3,800 and includes various professionals, corporate CEO’s, college presidents, media owners and reporters, high-ranking government officials and even high ranking US military officers.
These same international bankers that started the CFR were instrumental in getting President Woodrow Wilson to sign the Federal Reserve Act into existence in 1913 that basically gave these international bankers the power to print money and control our entire economy. To show you the mind set of this core group, one of the founding CFR members, Edward House, authored a book in 1912 entitled “Philip Dru: Administrator” in which he laid out a fictionalized plan for the conquest of America. In the book, he told of a conspiracy by which a group of wealthy businessmen would gain control of both the Democratic and Republican parties and use them as instruments for the creation of a socialist world government.
After signing the Federal Reserve Act into law, President Woodrow Wilson later admitted, "I am a most unhappy man. I have unwittingly ruined my country….(America is) no longer a government by free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress of a small group of dominant men." He was, of course, talking about the international bankers and the creation of the first great nationwide “front organization” called the Federal Reserve that was designed to directly benefit the international bankers at the expense of the American taxpayers.
The late Carroll Quigley (mentor and advisor to President Clinton) who was a long term member of the CFR, wrote in his book “Tragedy & Hope”: "The CFR is the American Branch of a society….which believes that national boundaries should be obliterated, and a one-world rule established."
Rear Admiral Chester Ward, a former member of the CFR for 16 years, sounded the alarm about the real intent of the CFR and pointed out that there was two separate cliques within the CFR:
1. The first and most powerful clique wants to bring about the surrender of the sovereignty and national independence of the United States.
2. The second clique of international members is comprised of Wall Street international bankers and their key agents who want to receive a world banking monopoly from whatever power ends up in control of global government.
Read all of it... [...after clicking on the link, scroll down to the second 'comment' by John Wallace]

Sweden sued over EU data directive inaction

Sweden’s government is being sued by the European Commission for refusing to implement a 2006 measure requiring telecom operators to store information about their customers’ phone calls and emails.
Court rejects lawyers' call to gag Pirates (25 May 09)
New law sees Swedish web traffic plunge (30 Apr 09)
Second ISP undermines file sharing law (28 Apr 09)
The European Union directive, known as the Data Retention Directive, was approved by Brussels in March 2006, but Sweden has yet to implement the measure more than three years after its passage.
Now the Commission’s willingness to tolerate the Swedish government’s recalcitrance over the directive appears to have worn out, as the Commission recently decided to file a suit against Sweden in the European Court of Justice, the Svenska Dagbladet (SvD) newspaper reports.
According to SvD, the European Commission decided to sue Sweden on April 14th, and has recently filed papers with the court to bring the suit forward.
The measure stipulates that telecom operators store data about customers’ telephone calls, such as when and to whom calls were made, as well as information about text messages and emails.
Passed in the wake of the Madrid and London terrorist bombings[!!!], the directive was seen as an important tool in combating possible terrorist threats, despite concerns from privacy advocates – concerns which have also led the Swedish government to drag its feet.

Gravity Anomalies Detected On The Moon

·Gravity Anomaly detected by using 4-way Doppler observation data from the RSTAR (OKINA) (RSAT)
·New finding in study on the Origin of Dichotomy for the Moon


April 16, 2008 (JST)
Kyushu University
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA)
http://www.jaxa.jp/press/2008/04/img/20080416_kaguya_01l.jpghttp://www.jaxa.jp/press/2008/04/img/20080416_kaguya_04l.jpg[Left, Gravity Anomaly Map at the Apollo basin. Rigth, Gravity Anomaly Map at the Mare Serenitatis]

JAXA announced a new finding of a gravity anomaly for both the near side and far side of the Moon by using 4-way Doppler observation data from the RSTAR (OKINA) with the main orbiter, the KAGUYA.
Until now, the gravity anomaly of the far side of the Moon has not been understood well. The gravity anomaly, which was obscure before, has been clearly revealed through observations by the Kaguya mission. For instance, the gravity anomaly of a basin on the far side is found to be characterized by a negative anomaly in a ring like the Apollo basin. On the other hand, the gravity anomaly of the basin on the near side is uniformly positive over the region such as with the Mare Serenitatis. Thus, the clear difference in gravity anomaly on the near side and the far side has been newly discovered and this fact brings a different story about the structure of the underground and the history of the evolution of the far side and near side of the Moon.
*Gravity anomaly: The lunar gravity field is not homogenous. Any region of the Moon with a higher than expected mass density will produce a gravity anomaly.
*Dichotomy of the Moon: Between the near side and the far side, clear asymmetry is called the "Dichotomy of the Moon" as in the thickness of the lunar crust and the distribution of the lunar Maria.